Web site address is called domain. The site is directed to IP (Internet Protocol) numbers. For example, gunalp.com is a web address. From this address, the visitor goes to the IP number 184.108.40.206. It is then forwarded to the server where the site’s files are located. An easy-to-remember domain system is created here.
How Do Domain Work?
When you enter a web address, your browser sends a request to the server network created by the domain name system (DNS).
For example. Web site is hosted on google servers. The server information we call DNS is as follows;
DNS server addresses are computers managed by the hosting company. Visitor computers are called servers. They have a special operating system structure that runs continuously. Servers are located in areas such as the specially cooled Data Center.
Domain Name Types
Domain names have multiple extensions. Among the most preferred are .com, .org, .net, .tv, .info, .co, .xyz extensions.
Top Level Domain – TLD (Generic)
The TLD definition, which is called the top-level domain, is the most used extensions such as .com, .net and .org and are available in alternatives such as .biz, .club, .info, .site.
Country Code Top Level Domain – ccTLD
It is a country-specific high-level domain. .uk for Britain to Germany. In, for India.’s, .tar extension to Turkey have been identified.
Sponsored Top Level Domain – sTLD
Extensions that represent a particular entity or community. For example, .edu for educational institutions, .gov extension to the Republic of Turkey institutions are used.
You can find the full list of domain names on the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority – IANA website. https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db
The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) institution is a standard agency that controls IP address allocation, autonomous system number allocation, root zone management in the Domain Name System, media types and other Internet Protocol-related symbols and Internet numbers.Wikipedia.org
TLD Effect on Google Searches (GccTLD)
Since some country extensions are accepted as TLD on the internet such as .com, .net, Google introduced the concept of GccTLD. In other words, some country extensions are evaluated in global results instead of regional in the search results. Nowadays, it is difficult to find a suitable name in .com domain name extension. Domains are not used for their purposes and are sold at high prices by intermediary companies that trade this business. For this reason, Colombia domain extension .co is preferred over .com. The country extensions that Google called GccTLD are as follows.
Organizations with Domains
Each domain extension is operated by a government agency or a company. DNS redirections are carried out thanks to the infrastructures of these organizations. For example, Verisign company is the authorized registrar of .com, .net, .name, .cc, .tv, .edu, .gov and .jobs domain extensions. The operation of many such extensions is in different institutions.
Domain Name Purchase Processes
You can buy the desired website address by authorized operators. You actually pay the rental fee annually. When the domain expires, there are life periods for each type of domain. Life periods vary depending on the domain name extensions. The life cycle below describes a general situation.
1- Available Period
The availble period indicates that the domain name is idle. You can have your name in this period by registering any period from one year to ten years.
2- Active Period
The active period is the period that begins after registering your domain name. The duration of this period determines the time you register the domain name.
3- On Hold Period
The suspended period is the period that begins when the registration period of your domain name expires. This period lasts 40 days. During this time, the domain is still yours, but it cannot be used because it is inactive. You can renew your domain name, which has entered the pending period, for 40 days without paying any penalty, at the standard list price.
4- Redemption Period
The hostage period is the process that starts after the 40-day suspension period. In this process, you can renew your domain name by paying the penalty fee determined by your registrar within 30 days.
5- Pending Delete Period
The deletion period is a 5-day period. Domains that do not renew can not be purchased and renewed in this period. After 5 days. The domain name can be deleted and re-registered.
In the last 5 years, new TLD extensions have been released. These domains are accredited by Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers – ICANN. It is defined as the global Internet community working together to support the stability and integrity of the Internet. Organizations, companies, organizations and organizations established through governments and international agreements in the structure of ICANN work in partnership with individuals who have the ability to contribute to the construction and protection of the global Internet.
Competition has been stiffening recently with the new extension domain operators. The biggest example of this is that when the .xyz extension was first purchased by spammers, it prevented the popularity of the extension. For this reason, XYZ.COM LLC started to carry out checks against spam and illegal use. Domain extensions will continue to bring different services to increase their popularity.
Verisign as a Domain Registryhttps://www.verisign.com/en_US/domain-names/domain-registry/index.xhtml
Managing multi-regional and multilingual siteshttps://support.google.com/webmasters/answer/182192#generic-domains